Thursday, February 28, 2013

Four Types Of Marine Sediments

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The Economic Importance of Marine Sediments

1. What are some products that come from sediments?
-The materials for building roads and structures. Toothpaste, paint and swimming pool filters.

2. How much of the world's energy comes from sediments?
-1/3 of oil and gas come from the deposits of continental margins.

3. How important is sand and gravel?
-Sand and gravel are important because they value more than $510 million dollars.

1. In what ways are sediments classified?
-Clastic, biochemical, or chemical precipitate.

2. List the types of marine sediments , Explain -
Lithogenous - they are formed by the weathering process. They are made up of small particles of rocks and oceanic volcanoes.

Biogenous - They are formed from the past life forms such as bones/teeth.
Hydrogenous - They are formed by minerals from the ocean's water by resulting into new minerals.

Hydrogenous - They are formed by precipitation of minerals from the ocean water.

Cosmogenous - They are formed by the nature surroundings and the sediments remains of large bodies of space materials such as comets and asteroids.

3. Where are sediments thickest? Are any areas of the ocean floor free of sediments?
-Continental slopes and rises is where sediments are thickest. There aren't any areas of the ocean floor free of sediments.

Island Arch and Ocean Trenches

Wednesday, February 13, 2013

Abyssal Plains

1. Define Abyssal Plains.
- It's an underwater plain on the deep ocean floor.

2. Describe where AP are found.
- They are found in depths of 3000 to 6000m in the Atlantic, as well as the Pacific.

3. Describe it's features.
- consist of volcanic rocks topped with sediments that are up to thousand of feet deep.

4. How much of the Earth do AP make up?
- They make up almost a third of Earth's surface.

Tuesday, February 12, 2013

Adaptations of sea caves.

What are some typical adaptations for these animals for these animals and why?
_ The lack of pigmentation.
_ development of sensory ( they don't depend on light )
_ reducing the size of the eyes.

Why is oxygen NOT plentiful in caves, and how do creatures deal with the lack of oxygen?
_ Oxygen is not plentiful because there is no photosynthesis.
_ Creatures deal with the lack of oxygen by reacting in a certain way, or physically in the environment they are in at the moment. 

Why do adaptations occur?
_  It's not because animals need to or want to adapt but they adapt on their own randomly.
When they do adapt, their adaptations leads to survival of living.

Tuesday, February 5, 2013

Hydrothermal Vents

1. What exactly was described as " the biggest biological discovery on earth?" 
- What was described was several stories high with black minerals and nutriants. 

2. Where in the ocean was the discovery?
- The discovery was found in the pacific ocean.

3. What was interesting about the tube worms?
- When the tube worms were cut open they would bleed like human.

4. How are species able to survive without sunlight? What is the process? 
- They survive off a bacteria that duplicates in the dark and is called kemo synthesis.

5. Where on earth are hydrothermal vents?
- They are found all over the world.

6. Describe the theory of how life on earth may have been hydrothermal vents?
- The theory is the underwater volcanos might have began on the vent site of life on earth.

Bathymetry Essental Questions

1. What is bathymetry?
Bathymetry is the measurement of the depth of water in ocean and rivers.

2. What is the difference between a bathymetric map and a topographic map?
A bathymetric map is when lines are used to show the slop and elevation of land features. A topographic map is when lines cannot point of equal equation.

3. How can oceanographers map the ocean floor in the past? What were the results?
In the past oceanographers would throw a heavy rope over the side of the boat and then record the length of the rope. The results were in accurate.

4. How do oceanographers map the ocean now? And how accurate and effective is this method now?
Now oceanographers used something that is called a sonar or also known as echo sounder. And has limited accuracy.

5. What are multibeam echo sounders effective?
- They are able to measure a small area of the sea floor.

6. What's an example of underwater discovery that was made possible by multibeam echo sounders?
- Thousand of seamount discovered in the pacific ocean.

7. Why do oceanographers map the ocean below the surface?
- Bathymetric measurement supports safe navigation and protect marine environment. They can predict tusnami.